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Reading Notes

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Learning Platform

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Check subjectwise details of the deducted portion of CBSE Class 12 syllabus from the following links:
Unit

Topic

Marks

I.

Relations and Functions

10

II.

Algebra

13

III.

Calculus

44

IV.

Vectors and 3D Geometry

17

V.

Linear Programming

6

VI.

Probability

10


Total

100

UnitI: Relations and Functions
1. Relations and Functions
Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.
2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions
Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.
UnitII: Algebra
1. Matrices
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of nonzero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2).Concept of elementary row and column operations.
Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).
2. Determinants
Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, cofactors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.
UnitIII: Calculus
1. Continuity and Differentiability
Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.
Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems(without proof) and their geometric interpretation.
2. Applications of Derivatives
Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool), Simple problems that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as reallife situations.
3. Integrals
Integration as inverse process of differentiation.Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof).Basic Properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.
4. Applications of the Integrals
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).
5. Differential Equations
Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation.Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given.Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:
UnitIV:Vectors and ThreeDimensional Geometry
1. Vectors
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector.Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors.
2. Three – dimensional Geometry
Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane.Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane.Distance of a point from a plane.
UnitV: Linear Programming
1. Linear Programming
Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimisation, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions(bounded and unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three nontrivial constraints).
UnitVI: Probability
1. Probability
Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.
 Reproduction in Organisms
 Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
 Human Reproduction
 Reproductive Health
 Principles of Inheritance and Variation
 Molecular Basis of Inheritance
 Evolution
 Human Health and Disease
 Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
 Microbes in Human Welfare
 Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
 Biotechnology and its Applications
 Organisms and Populations
 Ecosystem
 Biodiversity and Conservation
 Environmental Issues
Chapter 1:
Reproduction in Organisms

1.1 Asexual Reproduction
1.2 Sexual Reproduction

Chapter 2:
Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

1.1 Prefertilisation: Structures and Events
1.2 Pollination
1.3 Double Fertilisation, Post Fertilisation: Structures and Events

Chapter 3:
Human Reproduction

1.1 Male and Female Reproductive System
1.2 Gametogenesis and Menstrual Cycle
1.3 Fertilisation, Embryonic Development and Parturition

Chapter 4:
Reproductive Health

1.1 Population Explosion and Birth Control
1.2 Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infertility

Chapter 5:
Principles of Inheritance and Variation

1.1 Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance
1.2 Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Linkage and Recombination, Sex Determination
1.3 Mutations and Genetic Disorders

Chapter 6:
Molecular Basis of Inheritance

1.1 DNA, RNA and Experiments on Genetic Material
1.2 DNA Replication
1.3 Transcription, Genetic Code and Types of RNA
1.4 Translation and Regulation of Gene Expression
1.5 Human Genome Project and DNA Fingerprinting

Chapter 7:
Evolution

1.1 Origin of Life
1.2 Theories of Evolution
1.3 Mechanism of Evolution
1.4 Palaeontology and Human Evolution

Chapter 8:
Human Health and Disease

1.1 Diseases in Humans and Immunity
1.2 AIDS and Cancer
1.3 Alcohol and Drug abuse

Chapter 9:
Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

1.1 Animal Husbandry
1.2 Plant Breeding
1.3 Single Cell Protein and Tissue Culture

Chapter 10:
Microbes in Human Welfare

1.1 Microbes: Household Products, Industrial Products and Sewage Treatment
1.2 Microbes: Biogas, Biocontrol Agents and Biofertilisers

Chapter 11:
Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

1.1 Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
1.2 Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

Chapter 12:
Biotechnology and its Applications

1.1 Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture and Medicine
1.2 Transgenic Organisms and Ethical Issues in Biotechnology

Chapter 13:
Organisms and Populations

1.1 Organism and its Environment
1.2 Population: Attributes and Growth
1.3 Population Interactions

Chapter 14:
Ecosystem

1.1 Structure and Requirements of Ecosystem
1.2 Energy Flow and Ecological Pyramids
1.3 Ecological Succession and Biogeochemical Cycles

Chapter 15:
Biodiversity and Conservation

1.1 Biodiversity and its Importance
1.2 Conservation of Biodiversity

Chapter 16:
Environmental Issues

1.1 Air and Water Pollution and their Control
1.2 Solid wastes, Agrochemicals and Radioactive Wastes.
1.3 Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Depletion and Deforestation

Unit

Title

I

Solid State

II

Solutions

III

Electrochemistry

IV

Chemical Kinetics

V

Surface Chemistry

VI

Isolation of Elements

VII

pBlock Elements

VIII

d and fBlock Elements

IX

Coordination Compounds

X

Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

XI

Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

XII

Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

XIII

Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen

XIV

Biomolecules

XV

Polymers

XVI

Chemistry in Everyday Life

Unit I: Solid State
Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.
Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.
Unit II: Solutions
Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties  relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor.
Unit III: Electrochemistry
Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cellelectrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.
Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics
Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.
Unit V: Surface Chemistry
Adsorption  physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogeneous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic multimolecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion  types of emulsions.
Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements
Principles and methods of extraction  concentration, oxidation, reduction  electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.
Unit VII: p  Block Elements
Group 15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen, preparation properties & uses ; compounds of Nitrogen, preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric acid, Oxides of Nitrogen (Structure only) ; Phosphorus  allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: preparation and properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).
Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties,dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphure allotropic forms; compounds of sulphure: Preparation properties and uses of sulphurdioxide, sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).
Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).
Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements
General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals  metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.
Lanthanoids  Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.
Actinoids  Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.
Unit IX: Coordination Compounds
Coordination compounds  Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereo isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).
Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes
Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of CX bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.
Haloarenes: Nature of C X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only.
Uses and environmental effects of  dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.
Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers
Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.
Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.
Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.
Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids
Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of Nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in Aldehydes: uses.
Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.
Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen
Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.
Cyanides and Isocyanides  will be mentioned at relevant places in context.
Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.
Unit XIV: Biomolecules
Carbohydrates  Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), DL configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.
Proteins  Elementary idea of  amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins  primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones  Elementary idea excluding structure.
Vitamins  Classification and functions.
Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.
Unit XV: Polymers
Classification  natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and nonbiodegradable polymers.
Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life
Chemicals in medicines  analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.
Chemicals in food  preservations, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.
Cleansing agents  soaps and detergents, cleansing action.
Unit

Chapter / Topic

I

Electrostatics


Chapter1: Electric Charges and Fields


Chapter2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

II

Current Electricity


Chapter3: Current Electricity

III

Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism


Chapter4: Moving Charges and Magnetism


Chapter5: Magnetism and Matter

IV

Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current


Chapter6: Electromagnetic Induction


Chapter7: Alternating Current

V

Electromagnetic Waves


Chapter8: Electromagnetic Waves

VI

Optics


Chapter9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments


Chapter10: Wave Optics

VII

Dual Nature of Matter


Chapter11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

VIII

Atoms & Nuclei


Chapter12: Atoms


Chapter13: Nuclei

IX

Electronic Devices


Chapter14: Semiconductor Electronics

X

Communication Systems


Chapter15: Communication Systems

Unit number I: Electrostatics
Chapter 1: Electric Charges and Fields
Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's lawforce between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.
Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.
Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).
Chapter 2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance
Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.
Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.
Unit number II: Current Electricity
Chapter 3: Current Electricity
Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, electrical resistance, VI characteristics (linear
and nonlinear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors;temperature dependence of resistance.
Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.
Potentiometer  principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.
Unit number III: Magnetic Effects of Current & Magnetism
Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism
Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot  Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.
Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.
Force on a currentcarrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel currentcarrying conductorsdefinition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometerits current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.
Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter
Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements.Para, dia and ferro  magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.
Unit number IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents
Chapter6: Electromagnetic Induction
Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.
Chapter7: Alternating Current
Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current.AC generator and transformer.
Unit number V: Electromagnetic waves
Chapter8: Electromagnetic Waves
Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, Xrays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.
Unit number VI: Optics
Chapter9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments
Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses,thin lens formula, lensmaker's formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.
Scattering of light  blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.
Chapter10: Wave Optics
Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope, polarisation,plane polarised light, Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.
Unit number VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation
Chapter11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter
Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equationparticle nature of light.
Matter waveswave nature of particles, deBroglie relation, DavissonGermer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).
Unit number VIII: Atoms & Nuclei
Chapter12: Atoms
Alphaparticle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.
Chapter13: Nuclei
Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Massenergy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.
Unit number IX: Electronic Devices
Chapter14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits
Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode  IV characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;
Special purpose pn junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.
Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates
(OR, AND, NOT, NAND and NOR).
Unit number X : Communication Systems
Chapter 15: Communication Systems
Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation.
Exam Pattern and Grading for Class 12
CBSE will conduct the examination in theory as well as in practical, as per the prescribed syllabus. The allotted marks or grades shall be prescribed as per the nature of the subjects. The marks or grades shall be awarded for individual subjects and aggregate marks shall not be given.
Grading
 The assessment of theory or practical papers in external subjects will be in numerical scores. The grades will be indicated on the marksheet.
 Qualifying marks for external examinations are:
 33% at the Secondary or Senior School Certificate Examinations
 33% marks in theory
 33% marks in the practical separately
 The Board shall classify all passing students in rank order and then award grades as follows:
 A1 : Top 1/8th of the passing candidates
 A2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
 B1 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
 B2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
 C1 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
 C2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
 D1 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
 D2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
 E : Failed candidates
Competitive Examinations for Class 12
The following is the list of competitive examinations you can take part in:
Preengineering Exams
 JEE Main: This exam helps students secure admission to National Institutes of Technology (NITs), Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs), Centrally Funded Technical Institutes (CFTIs) as well as the dual degree programme of IIEST, Shibpur. The exam is conducted mostly between the first and second weeks of April.
 JEE Advanced: This exam helps students secure admission to the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs). Only those students who clear JEE Main are eligible for JEE Advanced. Over 2,20,000 students are selected each year, and the exam is conducted during the last week of May.
 BITSAT: The BITS Admission Test or BITSAT is a computerbased online exam that helps students secure admission to the integrated degree programmes of the Birla Institute of Technology and Science. The online exam generally takes place between the second and third weeks of April.
 UPSEE: The U.P. State Entrance Examination is a statelevel engineering examination in Uttar Pradesh. It is conducted during the third week of April.
 EAMCET: The Engineering Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test, commonly called as EAMCET, is an entrance examination that helps students secure admission to some engineering and medical colleges in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, India. Many other colleges offering graduation courses like BDS, BPharm, BSc, PharmD, BE, BTech (etc.) require qualification in this exam, which is conducted during the last week of May.
 MHTCET: The Common Entrance Test is conducted by the Government of Maharashtra for admission to full time degree courses of Technical Education ( Engineering and Technology, Pharmacy and Pharm.D.) It generally takes place during the first week of May.
 COMEDK: COMEDK stands for the Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental colleges of Karnataka, and is a statelevel entrance test, floated by the Associations of Medical, Dental and Engineering private colleges for admissions to member institutions. Post results, the first round of the counselling process is held according to the COMEDK counselling schedule.
 VITEEE: The VIT University conducts the VIT Engineering Entrance Exam (VITEEE) for granting students admission to the various undergraduate engineering programmes. Admissions to its two campuses, in Chennai and Vellore, is purely on the basis of the marks secured in the VITEEE exam.
Premedical Exams
 AIIMS: The All India Institute of Medical Sciences is one India’s top ranked medical institutes with a limited number of seats, and is hence very competitive. Separate exams are conducted for different courses during the month of May and June, after which the counselling takes place.
 NEET: The National Eligibility and Entrance Test or NEETUG is an entrance examination in India for students who wish to take up any graduate medical course (MBBS), dental course (BDS) or postgraduate course (MD or MS) in government or private medical colleges in India. The exam is conducted in 2 phases: Phase 1 is held during the first week of May and Phase 2 during the last week of July.
 AFMC: The Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) is a medical college in Pune, in the state of Maharashtra. This college is managed by the Indian Armed Forces. Admission to its MBBS course is on the basis of a student’s NEET score, followed by an interview and then the final selection.
 JIPMER: The Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) is a medical school, located in Pondicherry. It is a twoandahalfhour long online exam conducted during the first week of June.
Other Entrance Exams
 Olympiads: There are several Olympiads organized by the Science Olympiad,Maths Olympiad,AI Olympiad,Coding Olympiad, IMO, NCO, NSO and IEO. These Olympiads are held annually and are highly competitive for students. To name a few  National Cyber Olympiad, National Science Olympiad, National Mathematical Olympiad, National Merit Scholarship Scheme.
 NEST: At least 20 scholarships worth Rs 25,000 each are provided to 20 toppers in the Nationwide Education and Scholarship Test. Certificates are provided to those who score more than 40%.
 SAT: SAT (technically known as the SAT I) is a general test of verbal and quantitative reasoning accepted for admissions to colleges and universities in the US. Many universities also require the student to give the SAT II test.
 KVPY: The KVPY scholarship programme, funded by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, is held to attract and motivate students across the country to pursue a basic education in the field of Science, and a career in research.
How to prepare for Class 12
Preparation Tips for Class 12
You need to know what to study, how to study, how to manage time,how to manage accuracy every question/exam and where to look for references for better exam result. Below is a list of subjectwise pointers for your preparation.
Mathematics
 The best way to learn it is by practicing the problems as much a possible. It is highly recommended that problems be practiced till good confidence is achieved.
 It is important that you spend more time on working out problems you’re weak at and practice it until you satisfied to achieve. Divide time for each unit at your comfort, depending on the total number of marks, and your level of proficiency in it.
 Focus on important topics, such as those given below, will definitely help:
 Elementary Transformation to Find the Inverse of a Square Matrix
 Properties of Determinants
 Matrix Method
 Limit of Sum
 Properties of Definite Integrals
 Application of Integrals
 Concept of Line and Plane in 3D
 Linear Programming
 Bayes’ Theorem
 Maxima and Minima Application Problems
 During the exam read the question paper carefully,analyse it well and select the best questions to solve first. Attempt the sections that carry more weightage/marks first.
Biology
 Remember biological terms, practice diagrams and be thorough with different processes.
 Biology course content can be serious and may need multiple readings due to its theoretical nature.
 Using flash cards can be a good memory retention technique.
Physics
 Practice derivations at least 8 times and sovle and practice questions on the basis of important derivations. Give special attention to Electrostatics, Magnetism and Optics as they might prove to be invaluable.
 Solve at least 8 sample question papers on the basis of the derivations you’ve learned. This will give you an idea about where you’re going wrong and how you could improve.
 Attempt as many conceptual questions on those derivations as you can. This will give you a better understanding of the subject.
 Look for new questions on similar context from previous year’s question papers, sample papers and other model test papers.
 Always time yourself while solving sample papers as it will help you better manage time during the exam.
Chemistry
 Revise the notes you’ve prepared throughout the year if not then refer to the best notes online and resort to videos for easy to understand concept. They will help you memorize the subject in a systematic way.
 Make a note of various formulae and stick them on a wall or your study table. Try to read and memorise them every time you pass them.
 Focus on the basics of important topics like p, d and fBlock Elements.
 Study and Practice Raoult’s Law, Adsorption Isotherm, Nernst Equation, Molar Mass Determination, Packing Fraction etc. as they contain important and frequently asked questions.
 Solve at least 8 sample question from the numerical topics you’ve learnt. This will give you an idea about where you’re going wrong and how you could improve.
 For Organics, revise few important and famous reactions like Cannizzaro, Aldol, Hoffmann, Friedel Crafts Reaction etc.
Previous Years’ Papers for Class 12 in School Connect Online
Practicing model papers is important like previous year papers,sample papers from various resources, as this helps you simulate the real exam for m. Make sure that you practice regularly so that you can learn all formulae by heart and solve problems easily on the day of the exam.
So practice is an essence for your success in exam,then practice as much as possible for your best performance
Important Links for reference
More Reference Links –
Other National and International Level Olympiads
AI Olympiad

International Artificial Intelligence Olympiad 202021

Coding Olympiad

International Coding Olympiad 202021

IMO

International Maths Olympiad 202021

ISO

International Science Olympiad 202021

KVPY

Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana

Learn with best notes,free videos,practice questions and mock tests with School Connect Online for free demo click here
CBSE Class 11 Deleted Portion of Syllabus for 20202021
Check subjectwise details of the deducted portion of CBSE Class 9 syllabus from the following links: