Class 12 Online Learning.

Read & Practice Class 12th : Read,Practice and Mock Tests Online with immediate performance report for the preparation of 12th class syllabus for CBSE,JEE Main and Advance,NEET and AIIMS School Connect is the intelligent computer system that uses a complex and dynamic adaptive learning system based on the current student learning need and their academic development. The Learning tool developed to establish a guided learning process, so no student left unattended irrespective of their learning ability. All learning and understanding assisted by more then 38000+ videos with various resources to support learning with guidance.

Learn and Practice Unlimited with Online Practice Papers and Learning Videos

With School Connect enjoy the best online guided learning and practice process for Class 12th Examination, JEE Mains and Advance Online Practice,NEET and AIIMS Practice,with unlimited topic based easy to understand notes and videos lectures selected especially for overall and easy academic development.

Practice Unlimited with School Connect with -

  • Online Chapter-wise Practice and Tests: The modus operandi to have a learning and practice concept by attempting every chapters with every topics  has progressive levels of test in increasing order of difficulty-level.
  • Daily Practice Problems (DPP): As you learn more and more topics during the preparation cycle, it is imperative to practice and test all topics to memorise them thoroughly
  • Online Test Series (OTS): Time Management, Preparation and Proper Exam Management with error free environment. It’s an essential tool for the success in any exams like CBSE,JEE Mains and Advance,NEET,KVPY,AIIMS.So Online Mock Tests is the answer for final success.


CBSE Class 12 Deleted Portion of Syllabus for 2020-2021

Check subject-wise details of the deducted portion of CBSE Class 12 syllabus from the following links:           

Class 6 Geography (Social Science) Syllabus

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Class 12 Maths Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Class 12 Maths Deleted Syllabus Portion For 2020-21

CBSE Syllabus 2020-21: Check Deleted Topics From 12th Physics Syllabus 2020-21

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Deleted Syllabus Portion For 2020-21

CBSE Class 12 Business Studies Syllabus 2020-21 (Revised): Download Pdf

CBSE Class 12 Accountancy Deleted Syllabus Portion For 2020-21

Light, Shadows and Reflection Class 6 Notes Science Chapter 11

Artificial Intelligence syllabus for Class 10 Students by School Connect Online

CBSE Class 8 AI Syllabus

Artificial Intelligence Syllabus(AI) For Class 10 Students By School Connect Online

CBSE Related Links

NCERT  Solutions Class 6 Social Science

NCERT Solutions for class 12 Chemistry

NCERT Solutions for class 7 Maths

Study Physics  For Class 12

CBSE Syllabus Class 11

CBSE Class 11 Physics Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Syllabus for all classes

Sample Papers For Class 9 Science

NCERT Solutions for all Classes

NCERT Solutions for class 10 Maths


CBSE Class 12 Maths is given below:





Relations and Functions









Vectors and 3D Geometry



Linear Programming









Unit-I: Relations and Functions-

1. Relations and Functions 
Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions, composite functions, inverse of a function. Binary operations.

2. Inverse Trigonometric Functions 
Definition, range, domain, principal value branch. Graphs of inverse trigonometric functions. Elementary properties of inverse trigonometric functions.

Unit-II: Algebra-

1. Matrices
Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Non commutativity of multiplication of matrices and existence of non-zero matrices whose product is the zero matrix (restrict to square matrices of order 2).Concept of elementary row and column operations.
Invertible matrices and proof of the uniqueness of inverse, if it exists; (Here all matrices will have real entries).

2. Determinants

Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), properties of determinants, minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Consistency, inconsistency and number of solutions of system of linear equations by examples, solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

Unit-III: Calculus-

1. Continuity and Differentiability
Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivatives of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.
Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives. Rolle’s and Lagrange’s Mean Value Theorems(without proof) and their geometric interpretation.

2. Applications of Derivatives
Applications of derivatives: rate of change of bodies, increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, use of derivatives in approximation, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool), Simple problems- that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real-life situations.

3. Integrals
Integration as inverse process of differentiation.Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on Definite integrals as a limit of a sum, Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof).Basic Properties of definite integrals and evaluation of definite integrals.

4. Applications of the Integrals
Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, circles/parabolas/ellipses (in standard form only), Area between any of the two above said curves (the region should be clearly identifiable).

5. Differential Equations
Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation.Formation of differential equation whose general solution is given.Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree. Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:

Unit-IV:Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry

1. Vectors
Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector.Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors, scalar triple product of vectors.

2. Three – dimensional Geometry
Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points.Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane.Angle between (i) two lines, (ii) two planes, (iii) a line and a plane.Distance of a point from a plane.

Unit-V: Linear Programming

1. Linear Programming
Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimisation, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems, mathematical formulation of L.P. problems, graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions(bounded and unbounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).

Unit-VI: Probability

1. Probability
Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution, mean and variance of random variable. Repeated independent (Bernoulli) trials and Binomial distribution.

CBSE Class 12 Biology is given below:

  • Reproduction in Organisms
  • Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
  • Human Reproduction
  • Reproductive Health
  • Principles of Inheritance and Variation
  • Molecular Basis of Inheritance
  • Evolution
  • Human Health and Disease
  • Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production
  • Microbes in Human Welfare
  • Biotechnology: Principles and Processes
  • Biotechnology and its Applications
  • Organisms and Populations
  • Ecosystem
  • Biodiversity and Conservation
  • Environmental Issues

Chapter 1:

Reproduction in Organisms

1.1 Asexual Reproduction

1.2 Sexual Reproduction

Chapter 2:

Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

1.1 Prefertilisation: Structures and Events

1.2 Pollination

1.3 Double Fertilisation, Post Fertilisation: Structures and Events

Chapter 3:

Human Reproduction

1.1 Male and Female Reproductive System

1.2 Gametogenesis and Menstrual Cycle

1.3 Fertilisation, Embryonic Development and Parturition

Chapter 4:

Reproductive Health

1.1 Population Explosion and Birth Control

1.2 Sexually Transmitted Diseases and Infertility

Chapter 5:

Principles of Inheritance and Variation

1.1 Mendel’s Laws of Inheritance

1.2 Chromosomal Theory of Inheritance, Linkage and Recombination, Sex Determination

1.3 Mutations and Genetic Disorders

Chapter 6:

Molecular Basis of Inheritance

1.1 DNA, RNA and Experiments on Genetic Material

1.2 DNA Replication

1.3 Transcription, Genetic Code and Types of RNA

1.4 Translation and Regulation of Gene Expression

1.5 Human Genome Project and DNA Fingerprinting

Chapter 7:


1.1 Origin of Life

1.2 Theories of Evolution

1.3 Mechanism of Evolution

1.4 Palaeontology and Human Evolution

Chapter 8:

Human Health and Disease

1.1 Diseases in Humans and Immunity

1.2 AIDS and Cancer

1.3 Alcohol and Drug abuse

Chapter 9:

Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

1.1 Animal Husbandry

1.2 Plant Breeding

1.3 Single Cell Protein and Tissue Culture

Chapter 10:

Microbes in Human Welfare

1.1 Microbes: Household Products, Industrial Products and Sewage Treatment

1.2 Microbes: Biogas, Biocontrol Agents and Biofertilisers

Chapter 11:

Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

1.1 Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology

1.2 Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology

Chapter 12:

Biotechnology and its Applications

1.1 Biotechnological Applications in Agriculture and Medicine

1.2 Transgenic Organisms and Ethical Issues in Biotechnology

Chapter 13:

Organisms and Populations

1.1 Organism and its Environment

1.2 Population: Attributes and Growth

1.3 Population Interactions

Chapter 14:


1.1 Structure and Requirements of Ecosystem

1.2 Energy Flow and Ecological Pyramids

1.3 Ecological Succession and Biogeochemical Cycles

Chapter 15:

Biodiversity and Conservation

1.1 Biodiversity and its Importance

1.2 Conservation of Biodiversity

Chapter 16:

Environmental Issues

1.1 Air and Water Pollution and their Control

1.2 Solid wastes, Agrochemicals and Radioactive Wastes.

1.3 Greenhouse Effect, Ozone Depletion and Deforestation


CBSE Class 12 Chemistry is given below:




Solid State






Chemical Kinetics


Surface Chemistry


Isolation of Elements


p-Block Elements


d- and f-Block Elements


Coordination Compounds


Haloalkanes and Haloarenes


Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers


Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids


Organic Compounds containing Nitrogen






Chemistry in Everyday Life


Unit I: Solid State

Classification of solids based on different binding forces: molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids (elementary idea). Unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, packing efficiency, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, point defects, electrical and magnetic properties.

Band theory of metals, conductors, semiconductors and insulators and n & p type semiconductors.

Unit II: Solutions

Types of solutions, expression of concentration of solutions of solids in liquids, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, colligative properties - relative lowering of vapour pressure, Raoult's law, elevation of boiling point, depression of freezing point, osmotic pressure, determination of molecular masses using colligative properties, abnormal molecular mass, Van't Hoff factor.

Unit III: Electrochemistry

Redox reactions, conductance in electrolytic solutions, specific and molar conductivity, variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch's Law, electrolysis and law of electrolysis (elementary idea), dry cell-electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, lead accumulator, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its application to chemical cells, Relation between Gibbs energy change and emf of a cell, fuel cells, corrosion.

Unit IV: Chemical Kinetics

Rate of a reaction (Average and instantaneous), factors affecting rate of reaction: concentration, temperature, catalyst; order and molecularity of a reaction, rate law and specific rate constant, integrated rate equations and half life (only for zero and first order reactions), concept of collision theory (elementary idea, no mathematical treatment). Activation energy, Arrhenious equation.

Unit V: Surface Chemistry

Adsorption - physisorption and chemisorption, factors affecting adsorption of gases on solids, catalysis, homogenous and heterogeneous activity and selectivity; enzyme catalysis colloidal state distinction between true solutions, colloids and suspension; lyophilic, lyophobic multi-molecular and macromolecular colloids; properties of colloids; Tyndall effect, Brownian movement, electrophoresis, coagulation, emulsion - types of emulsions.

Unit VI: General Principles and Processes of Isolation of Elements

Principles and methods of extraction - concentration, oxidation, reduction - electrolytic method and refining; occurrence and principles of extraction of aluminium, copper, zinc and iron.

Unit VII: p - Block Elements

Group 15 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, oxidation states, trends in physical and chemical properties; Nitrogen, preparation properties & uses ; compounds of Nitrogen, preparation and properties of Ammonia and Nitric acid, Oxides of Nitrogen (Structure only) ; Phosphorus - allotropic forms, compounds of Phosphorus: preparation and properties of Phosphine, Halides and Oxoacids (elementary idea only).

Group 16 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties,dioxygen: Preparation, Properties and uses, classification of oxides, Ozone, Sulphure -allotropic forms; compounds of sulphure: Preparation properties and uses of sulphur-dioxide, sulphuric acid: industrial process of manufacture, properties and uses; Oxoacids of Sulphur (Structures only).

Group 17 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, oxidation states, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties; compounds of halogens, Preparation properties and uses of chlorine and hydrochloric acid, interhalogen compounds, Oxoacids of halogens (structures only).

Group 18 Elements: General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence, trends in physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit VIII: d and f Block Elements

General introduction, electronic configuration, occurrence and characteristics of transition metals, general trends in properties of the first row transition metals - metallic character, ionization enthalpy, oxidation states, ionic radii, colour, catalytic property, magnetic properties, interstitial compounds, alloy formation, preparation and properties of K2Cr2O7 and KMnO4.

Lanthanoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states, chemical reactivity and lanthanoid contraction and its consequences.

Actinoids - Electronic configuration, oxidation states and comparison with lanthanoids.

Unit IX: Coordination Compounds

Coordination compounds - Introduction, ligands, coordination number, colour, magnetic properties and shapes, IUPAC nomenclature of mononuclear coordination compounds. Bonding, Werner's theory, VBT, and CFT; structure and stereo isomerism, importance of coordination compounds (in qualitative inclusion, extraction of metals and biological system).

Unit X: Haloalkanes and Haloarenes

Haloalkanes: Nomenclature, nature of C-X bond, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of substitution reactions, optical rotation.

Haloarenes: Nature of C -X bond, substitution reactions (Directive influence of halogen in monosubstituted compounds only.

Uses and environmental effects of - dichloromethane, trichloromethane, tetrachloromethane, iodoform, freons, DDT.

Unit XI: Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers

Alcohols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties (of primary alcohols only), identification of primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, mechanism of dehydration, uses with special reference to methanol and ethanol.

Phenols: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, acidic nature of phenol, electrophilic substitution reactions, uses of phenols.

Ethers: Nomenclature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses.

Unit XII: Aldehydes, Ketones and Carboxylic Acids

Aldehydes and Ketones: Nomenclature, nature of carbonyl group, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, mechanism of Nucleophilic addition, reactivity of alpha hydrogen in Aldehydes: uses.

Carboxylic Acids: Nomenclature, acidic nature, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties; uses.

Unit XIII: Organic compounds containing Nitrogen

Amines: Nomenclature, classification, structure, methods of preparation, physical and chemical properties, uses, identification of primary, secondary and tertiary amines.

Cyanides and Isocyanides - will be mentioned at relevant places in context.

Diazonium salts: Preparation, chemical reactions and importance in synthetic organic chemistry.

Unit XIV: Biomolecules

Carbohydrates - Classification (aldoses and ketoses), monosaccahrides (glucose and fructose), D-L configuration oligosaccharides (sucrose, lactose, maltose), polysaccharides (starch, cellulose, glycogen); Importance of carbohydrates.

Proteins - Elementary idea of - amino acids, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, structure of proteins - primary, secondary, tertiary structure and quaternary structures (qualitative idea only), denaturation of proteins; enzymes. Hormones - Elementary idea excluding structure.

Vitamins - Classification and functions.

Nucleic Acids: DNA and RNA.

Unit XV: Polymers

Classification - natural and synthetic, methods of polymerization (addition and condensation), copolymerization, some important polymers: natural and synthetic like polythene, nylon polyesters, bakelite, rubber. Biodegradable and non-biodegradable polymers.

Unit XVI: Chemistry in Everyday Life

Chemicals in medicines - analgesics, tranquilizers antiseptics, disinfectants, antimicrobials, antifertility drugs, antibiotics, antacids, antihistamines.

Chemicals in food - preservations, artificial sweetening agents, elementary idea of antioxidants.

Cleansing agents - soaps and detergents, cleansing action.

Physics Class 12 Syllabus


Chapter / Topic




Chapter-1: Electric Charges and Fields


Chapter-2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance


Current Electricity


Chapter-3: Current Electricity


Magnetic Effect of Current & Magnetism


Chapter-4: Moving Charges and Magnetism


Chapter-5: Magnetism and Matter


Electromagnetic Induction & Alternating Current


Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction


Chapter-7: Alternating Current


Electromagnetic Waves


Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves




Chapter-9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments


Chapter-10: Wave Optics


Dual Nature of Matter


Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter


Atoms & Nuclei


Chapter-12: Atoms


Chapter-13: Nuclei


Electronic Devices


Chapter-14:  Semiconductor  Electronics


Communication Systems


Chapter-15: Communication Systems


Unit number   I: Electrostatics

Chapter   1: Electric Charges and Fields

Electric Charges; Conservation of charge, Coulomb's law-force between two point charges, forces between multiple charges; superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines, electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole, torque on a dipole in uniform electric field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell (field inside and outside).

Chapter  2: Electrostatic Potential and Capacitance

Electric potential, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipole in an electrostatic field.

Conductors and insulators, free charges and bound charges inside a conductor. Dielectrics and electric polarisation, capacitors and capacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates, energy stored in a capacitor.

Unit number II: Current Electricity

Chapter 3: Current Electricity

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity, mobility and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics (linear
and non-linear), electrical energy and power, electrical resistivity and conductivity, Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; series and parallel combinations of resistors;temperature dependence of resistance.

Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel, Kirchhoff's laws and simple applications, Wheatstone bridge, metre bridge.

Potentiometer - principle and its applications to measure potential difference and for comparing EMF of two cells; measurement of internal resistance of a cell.

Unit number III: Magnetic Effects of Current & Magnetism

Chapter 4: Moving Charges and Magnetism

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment. Biot - Savart law and its application to current carrying circular loop.

Ampere's law and its applications to infinitely long straight wire. Straight and toroidal solenoids (only qualitative treatment), force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron.

Force on a current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field, force between two parallel current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere, torque experienced by a current loop in uniform magnetic field; moving coil galvanometer-its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Chapter 5: Magnetism and Matter

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron, magnetic field intensity due to a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along its axis and perpendicular to its axis, torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, magnetic field lines; earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements.Para-, dia- and ferro - magnetic substances, with examples. Electromagnets and factors affecting their strengths, permanent magnets.

Unit number  IV: Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents

Chapter-6: Electromagnetic Induction

Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s laws, induced emf and current; Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and mutual induction.

Chapter-7: Alternating Current

Alternating currents, peak and RMS value of alternating current/voltage; reactance and impedance; LC oscillations (qualitative treatment only), LCR series circuit, resonance; power in AC circuits, power factor, wattless current.AC generator and transformer.

Unit number V: Electromagnetic waves

Chapter-8: Electromagnetic Waves

Basic idea of displacement current, Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics, their Transverse nature (qualitative ideas only).Electromagnetic spectrum (radio waves, microwaves, infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses.

Unit number VI: Optics

Chapter-9: Ray Optics and Optical Instruments

Ray Optics: Reflection of light, spherical mirrors, mirror formula, refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, optical fibres, refraction at spherical surfaces, lenses,thin lens formula, lensmaker's formula, magnification, power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact, refraction and dispersion of light through a prism.

Scattering of light - blue colour of sky and reddish apprearance of the sun at sunrise and sunset.Optical instruments: Microscopes and astronomical telescopes (reflecting and refracting) and their magnifying powers.

Chapter-10: Wave Optics

Wave optics: Wave front and Huygen's principle, reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts. Proof of laws of reflection and refraction using Huygen's principle. Interference, Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light, diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, resolving power of microscope and astronomical telescope, polarisation,plane polarised light, Brewster's law, uses of plane polarised light and Polaroids.

Unit number VII: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation

Chapter-11: Dual Nature of Radiation and Matter

Dual nature of radiation, Photoelectric effect, Hertz and Lenard's observations; Einstein's photoelectric equation-particle nature of light.

Matter waves-wave nature of particles, de-Broglie relation, Davisson-Germer experiment (experimental details should be omitted; only conclusion should be explained).

Unit number VIII: Atoms & Nuclei

Chapter-12: Atoms

Alpha-particle scattering experiment; Rutherford's model of atom; Bohr model, energy levels, hydrogen spectrum.

Chapter-13: Nuclei

Composition and size of nucleus, Radioactivity, alpha, beta and gamma particles/rays and their properties; radioactive decay law. Mass-energy relation, mass defect; binding energy per nucleon and its variation with mass number; nuclear fission, nuclear fusion.

Unit number IX: Electronic Devices

Chapter-14: Semiconductor Electronics: Materials, Devices and Simple Circuits

Energy bands in conductors, semiconductors and insulators (qualitative ideas only) Semiconductor diode - I-V characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier;

Special purpose p-n junction diodes: LED, photodiode, solar cell and Zener diode and their characteristics, zener diode as a voltage regulator.

Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor and transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration), basic idea of analog and digital signals, Logic gates

Unit number X : Communication Systems

Chapter 15: Communication Systems

Elements of a communication system (block diagram only); bandwidth of signals (speech, TV and digital data); bandwidth of transmission medium. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the atmosphere, sky and space wave propagation, satellite communication. Need for modulation, amplitude modulation.

Exam Pattern and Grading for Class 12

CBSE will conduct the examination in theory as well as in practical, as per the prescribed syllabus. The allotted marks or grades shall be prescribed as per the nature of the subjects. The marks or grades shall be awarded for individual subjects and aggregate marks shall not be given.


  • The assessment of theory or practical papers in external subjects will be in numerical scores. The grades will be indicated on the marksheet.
  • Qualifying marks for external examinations are:
    • 33% at the Secondary or Senior School Certificate Examinations
    • 33% marks in theory
    • 33% marks in the practical separately
  • The Board shall classify all passing students in rank order and then award grades as follows:
    • A1 : Top 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • A2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • B1 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • B2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • C1 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • C2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • D1 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • D2 : Next 1/8th of the passing candidates
    • E : Failed candidates

Competitive Examinations for Class 12

The following is the list of competitive examinations you can take part in:

Pre-engineering Exams

  • JEE Main: This exam helps students secure admission to National Institutes of Technology (NITs), Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs), Centrally Funded Technical Institutes (CFTIs) as well as the dual degree programme of IIEST, Shibpur. The exam is conducted mostly between the first and second weeks of April.
  • JEE AdvancedThis exam helps students secure admission to the Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs). Only those students who clear JEE Main are eligible for JEE Advanced. Over 2,20,000 students are selected each year, and the exam is conducted during the last week of May.
  • BITSATThe BITS Admission Test or BITSAT is a computer-based online exam that helps students secure admission to the integrated degree programmes of the Birla Institute of Technology and Science. The online exam generally takes place between the second and third weeks of April.
  • UPSEE: The U.P. State Entrance Examination is a state-level engineering examination in Uttar Pradesh. It is conducted during the third week of April.
  • EAMCET: The Engineering Agricultural and Medical Common Entrance Test, commonly called as EAMCET, is an entrance examination that helps students secure admission to some engineering and medical colleges in the states of Andhra Pradesh and Telangana, India. Many other colleges offering graduation courses like BDS, BPharm, BSc, PharmD, BE, BTech (etc.) require qualification in this exam, which is conducted during the last week of May.
  • MHT-CET: The Common Entrance Test is conducted by the Government of Maharashtra for admission to full time degree courses of Technical Education ( Engineering and Technology, Pharmacy and Pharm.D.) It generally takes place during the first week of May.
  • COMEDK: COMEDK stands for the Consortium of Medical, Engineering and Dental colleges of Karnataka, and is a state-level entrance test, floated by the Associations of Medical, Dental and Engineering private colleges for admissions to member institutions. Post results, the first round of the counselling process is held according to the COMEDK counselling schedule.
  • VITEEE: The VIT University conducts the VIT Engineering Entrance Exam (VITEEE) for granting students admission to the various undergraduate engineering programmes. Admissions to its two campuses, in Chennai and Vellore, is purely on the basis of the marks secured in the VITEEE exam.

Pre-medical Exams

  • AIIMS: The All India Institute of Medical Sciences is one India’s top ranked medical institutes with a limited number of seats, and is hence very competitive. Separate exams are conducted for different courses during the month of May and June, after which the counselling takes place.
  • NEETThe National Eligibility and Entrance Test or NEET-UG is an entrance examination in India for students who wish to take up any graduate medical course (MBBS), dental course (BDS) or postgraduate course (MD or MS) in government or private medical colleges in India. The exam is conducted in 2 phases: Phase 1 is held during the first week of May and Phase 2 during the last week of July.
  • AFMC: The Armed Forces Medical College (AFMC) is a medical college in Pune, in the state of Maharashtra. This college is managed by the Indian Armed Forces. Admission to its MBBS course is on the basis of a student’s NEET score, followed by an interview and then the final selection.
  • JIPMER: The Jawaharlal Institute of Postgraduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER) is a medical school, located in Pondicherry. It is a two-and-a-half-hour long online exam conducted during the first week of June.

Other Entrance Exams

  • Olympiads: There are several Olympiads organized by the Science Olympiad Foundation (SOF) such as IMO, NCO, NSO and IEO. These Olympiads are held annually and are highly competitive for students. To name a few - National Cyber Olympiad, National Science Olympiad, National Mathematical Olympiad, National Merit Scholarship Scheme.
  • NEST: At least 20 scholarships worth Rs 25,000 each are provided to 20 toppers in the Nationwide Education and Scholarship Test. Certificates are provided to those who score more than 40%.
  • SAT: SAT (technically known as the SAT I) is a general test of verbal and quantitative reasoning accepted for admissions to colleges and universities in the US. Many universities also require the student to give the SAT II test.
  • KVPYThe KVPY scholarship programme, funded by the Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, is held to attract and motivate students across the country to pursue a basic education in the field of Science, and a career in research.

How to prepare for Class 12

Preparation Tips for Class 12

You need to know what to study, how to study, how to manage time,how to manage accuracy every question/exam and where to look for references for better exam result. Below is a list of subject-wise pointers for your preparation.


  • The best way to learn it is by practicing the problems as much a possible. It is highly recommended that problems be practiced till good confidence is achieved.
  • It is important that you spend more time on working out problems you’re weak at and practice it until you satisfied to achieve. Divide time for each unit at your comfort, depending on the total number of marks, and your level of proficiency in it.
  • Focus on important topics, such as those given below, will definitely help:
    • Elementary Transformation to Find the Inverse of a Square Matrix
    • Properties of Determinants
    • Matrix Method
    • Limit of Sum
    • Properties of Definite Integrals
    • Application of Integrals
    • Concept of Line and Plane in 3D
    • Linear Programming
    • Bayes’ Theorem
    • Maxima and Minima Application Problems
  • During the exam read the question paper carefully,analyse it well and select the best questions to solve first. Attempt the sections that carry more weightage/marks first.


  • Remember biological terms, practice diagrams and be thorough with different processes.
  • Biology course content can be serious and may need multiple readings due to its theoretical nature.
  • Using flash cards can be a good memory retention technique.


  • Practice derivations at least 8 times and sovle and practice questions on the basis of important derivations. Give special attention to Electrostatics, Magnetism and Optics as they might prove to be invaluable.
  • Solve at least 8 sample question papers on the basis of the derivations you’ve learned. This will give you an idea about where you’re going wrong and how you could improve.
  • Attempt as many conceptual questions on those derivations as you can. This will give you a better understanding of the subject.
  • Look for new questions on similar context from previous year’s question papers, sample papers and other model test papers.
  • Always time yourself while solving sample papers as it will help you better manage time during the exam.


  • Revise the notes you’ve prepared throughout the year if not then refer to the best notes online and resort to videos for easy to understand concept. They will help you memorize the subject in a systematic way.
  • Make a note of various formulae and stick them on a wall or your study table. Try to read and memorise them every time you pass them.
  • Focus on the basics of important topics like p, d and f-Block Elements.
  • Study and Practice Raoult’s Law, Adsorption Isotherm, Nernst Equation, Molar Mass Determination, Packing Fraction etc. as they contain important and frequently asked questions.
  • Solve at least 8 sample question from the numerical topics you’ve learnt. This will give you an idea about where you’re going wrong and how you could improve.
  • For Organics, revise few important and famous reactions like Cannizzaro, Aldol, Hoffmann, Friedel Crafts Reaction etc.

Previous Years’ Papers for Class 12 in School Connect Online

Practicing model papers is important like previous year papers,sample papers from various resources, as this helps you simulate the real exam for m. Make sure that you practice regularly so that you can learn all formulae by heart and solve problems easily on the day of the exam.

So practice is an essence for your success in exam,then practice as much as possible for your best performance

Important Links for reference

CBSE Syllabus 2020-21: Check Deleted Topics From 12th Physics Syllabus 2020-21

CBSE Syllabus 2020-21: Check Deleted Topics From 11th Biology Syllabus 2020-21

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Deleted Syllabus Portion for 2020-21

International Maths Olympiad (IMO) - School Connect Online

Online KVPY Exam Preparation. - School Connect Online

CBSE Class 10 Maths Syllabus 2020: Check Topics Removed From Syllabus For 2020-21

Artificial Intelligence Syllabus(AI) For Class 10 Students By School Connect Online

CBSE Class 8 AI Syllabus

CBSE Syllabus For Class 9 Artificial Intelligence  

Class 6 Geography (Social Science) Syllabus

JEE Main Chemistry Syllabus - Check detailed Syllabus here


CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Deleted Syllabus Portion For 2020-21

Light, Shadows and Reflection Class 6 Notes Science Chapter 11

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Syllabus For Academic Year 2020-2021

NEET Syllabus 2020 – Complete Physics, Chemistry & Biology

JEE Main Syllabus 2021 – Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics

JEE Advanced Syllabus For Physics, Chemistry, Maths In Detail

CBSE Class 12 Syllabus 2020-21 Pdf Download

More Reference Links –

JEE Main Mock Test Series 2020: Test Yourself With Free JEE Main previous year papers

JEE Main Question Paper with Answer Keys and Solutions

NTSE 2020 Exam Pattern, Exam Duration And Marking Scheme

CBSE Class 10 Social Science Syllabus For Academic Year 2020-2021

JEE Main Sample Paper 2020, IIT JEE Mains Mock

CBSE Syllabus For Class 10 Maths For Academic Year 2020-2021

NEET Preparation 2020: How to crack NEET 2020?

CBSE Class 10 Science Syllabus For Academic Year 2020-2021

NEET Sample Question Paper with Answer Keys for 2020

CBSE Class 10 Deleted Social Science Syllabus Pdf 2020-21

NTSE 2020 Registration-Direct Link, State-Wise NTSE

CBSE Class 10 Maths Syllabus 2020: Check Topics Removed From Syllabus For 2020-21

NTSE Exam 2020-2021 – Eligibility, Exam Pattern, Dates

Class 10th CBSE Science Deleted Topics In 2020-21

NTSE Exam Syllabus

CBSE Class 10 Science Revised Syllabus 2020-21

Artificial Intelligence Syllabus For Class 10 Students By School Connect Online

CBSE Class 12 Biology Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Class 12 Maths Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Class 12 Physics Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Syllabus 2020-21: Check Deleted Topics From 12th Physics Syllabus 2020-21

CBSE Class 12 Maths Deleted Syllabus Portion For 2020-21

CBSE Class 12 Business Studies Syllabus 2020-21 (Revised): Download Pdf

CBSE Class 12 Chemistry Deleted Syllabus Portion For 2020-21

CBSE Class 12 Accountancy Deleted Syllabus Portion For 2020-21

NCERT Solutions For Class 12 Maths

CBSE AI Syllabus Class 8

CBSE Syllabus 2020-21: Check Deleted Topics From 12th Physics Syllabus 2020-21

JEE Mains Syllabus 2020-21

CBSE Class 6 Geography Syllabus

NEET Syllabus 2020-21


Other National and International Level Olympiads

AI Olympiad

International Artificial Intelligence Olympiad 2020-21

Coding Olympiad

International Coding Olympiad 2020-21


International Maths Olympiad 2020-21


International Science Olympiad 2020-21


Kishore Vaigyanik Protsahan Yojana

Learn with best notes,free videos,practice questions and mock tests with School Connect Online for free demo click here

CBSE Class 11 Deleted Portion of Syllabus for 2020-2021

Check subject-wise details of the deducted portion of CBSE Class 9 syllabus from the following links:

Artificial Intelligence(AI) Syllabus Class 11

CBSE Class 11 Physics Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Class 11 Maths Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Class 11 Biology Syllabus 2020-2021

CBSE Class 11 Chemistry Syllabus 2020-21

CBSE Class 11 Maths Deleted Syllabus Portion For 2020-21

CBSE Class 11 Physics Deleted Syllabus Portion For 2020-21

CBSE Syllabus 2020-21: Check Deleted Topics From 11th Chemistry Syllabus 2020-21

Check Deleted Topics Of CBSE Class 11th Business Studies 2020-21

CBSE Class 11 Deleted Syllabus Of Accountancy Pdf 2020-21

CBSE Syllabus 2020-21: Check Deleted Topics From 12th Biology Syllabus 2020-21

CBSE Syllabus 2020-21: Check Deleted Topics From 11th Biology Syllabus 2020-21

CBSE Class 8 AI Syllabus

Artificial Intelligence Syllabus(AI) For Class 10 Students By School Connect Online

Our Credibility Factor

Come be a part of a learning system, that only leads to success.

12000+ Students Enrolled
4000+ Tests Attempted
80000+ Questions Answered
8000+ Topics Read
50+ Exams Cleared
20000+ Hours of Usage